Graduate student, Kelly DeMars has her 1st First Author Paper accepted for publication in J of Exper Neurosci 2017

Kelly M DeMars, Changjun Yang, Kimberly E Hawkins, Austin O McCrea, David M Siwarski and Eduardo Candelario-Jalil.  Spatiotemporal Changes in P-glycoprotein Levels in Brain and Peripheral Tissues Following Ischemic Stroke in Rats.  Journal of  Experimental Neuroscience 2017 11:1-9.

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is known to transport a diverse array of xenobiotics, including therapeutic drugs. A member of the ATPbinding cassette (ABC) transporter family, P-gp is a protein encoded by the gene Mdr1 in humans and Abcb1 in rodents (represented by 2 isoforms Abcb1a and Abcb1b). Lining the luminal and abluminal membrane of brain capillary endothelial cells, P-gp is a promiscuous efflux pump extruding a variety of exogenous toxins and drugs. In this study, we measured dynamic changes in Abcb1a and Abcb1b transcripts and P-gp protein in the brain, liver, and kidney after experimental stroke. P-glycoprotein has been shown to increase in brain endothelial cells following hypoxia in vitro or after exposure to proinflammatory cytokines. Using a rat model of ischemic stroke, we hypothesized that P-gp expression will be increased in the brain, liver, and kidney in response to neuroinflammation following ischemic stroke. Adult Sprague Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 minutes and were killed at 4, 14, 24, and 48 hours postreperfusion onset to determine the time course of P-gp expression. To mimic ischemia occurring at the blood-brain barrier, rat brain endothelial (RBE4) cells were subjected to hypoxia and low glucose (HLG) for 16 hours. Immunoblotting analyses showed P-gp increases in brain and liver following 90-minute MCAO, as well as in cultured RBE4 cells after 16-hour HLG treatment, but fluctuated in the kidney depending on the time point. The relative roles of each isoform in the protein expression were analyzed with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Ischemic stroke leads to significant increases in P-gp levels not only in the brain but also in the liver. The increase in P-gp could dramatically reduce the bioavailability and efficacy of neuroprotective drugs. Therefore, P-gp represents a big hurdle to drug delivery to the ischemic brain.
KEYWORDS: P-glycoprotein, ischemia, stroke, liver, kidney, Abcb1/Mdr1